In layman terms, 3 phase wiring distribution is simply distributing power supply with 3 live incoming supply instead of the single phase which uses only one power supply line. In a normal domestic environment where 3 phase equipments are rarely used, the extra 2 live supplies ensures that the user do not overload the permitted amperage allowed a single phase supply.
Due to the increment of power used in modern homes, power shortage is often a problem faced by house owners. Thus many new houses comes equipped with 3 phase supplies. The advantage is of course they have extra electrical power to spread around thereby they do not have to worry about the risk of overloading one single line.
Even Distribution Of 3 Phase Wiring Supply
In using a 3 phase wiring supply, utmost care must be taken to ensure that no one phase is loaded heavier than the other. Thus the electrician entrusted with the job of installing the electrical system of the house must be knowledgeable in 3 phase power distribution. He must also know how to calculate the electrical consumption of all the electrical equipments intended for use in the house.
For example, a house has 4 Air-Conditioning units, an Oven, 2 refrigerators, A Cooker and a Washing Machine. All these are power hungry electrical items and if all these equipments are loaded into one single phase supply, then that phase will definitely be overloaded.
A good practice will be to distribute these equipment’s power supply evenly between all the 3 phases. The wiring diagram below shows how a 3 phase Wiring Power Distribution will look like in general.
Note that all the electrical equipment are distributed equally amongst the 3 phase supply and no one single phase is overloaded. This should be the most proper way in 3 phase wiring power distribution.